Publications

References and Links to Papers

June 04, 2020

Environmental Science and Pollution Research volume 27, pages29867–29899(2020)

An update of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) on systemic pesticides. Part 4: Alternatives in major cropping systems

We present a synthetic review and expert consultation that assesses the actual risks posed by arthropod pests in four major crops, identifies targets for integrated pest management (IPM) in terms of cultivated land needing pest control and gauges the implementation “readiness” of non-chemical alternatives. Our assessment focuses on the world’s primary target pests for neonicotinoid-based management: western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) in maize; wireworms (Agriotes spp.) in maize and winter wheat; bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) in winter wheat; brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) in rice; cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) and silver-leaf whitefly (SLW, Bemisia tabaci) in cotton. First, we queried scientific literature databases and consulted experts from different countries in Europe, North America, and Asia about available IPM tools for each crop-pest system. Next, using an online survey, we quantitatively assessed the economic relevance of target pests by compiling country-level records of crop damage, yield impacts, extent of insecticide usage, and “readiness” status of various pest management alternatives (i.e., research, plot-scale validation, grower-uptake). Biological control received considerable scientific attention, while agronomic strategies (e.g., crop rotation), insurance schemes, decision support systems (DSS), and innovative pesticide application modes were listed as key alternatives. Our study identifies opportunities to advance applied research, IPM technology validation, and grower education to halt or drastically reduce our over-reliance on systemic insecticides globally.

Insecticide drift and its effect on Kampimodromus aberrans (Oudemans) in an Italian vineyard-hedgerow system

Highlights


• In standard vineyards in north-eastern Italy, 12% of pesticide can drift for 6–7 m.

• The presence of a hedgerow reduced the drift by about 80%.

• Effects of pesticide on K. aberrans are in any case low.

• Environmental scheme should take hedgerows into account on a catchment scale.

When a pesticide is applied in a vineyard, the fraction can drift away from the target and affect the abundance of beneficial arthropods in adjacent crops or hedgerows. A field experiment was conducted in north-eastern Italy using an air-assisted sprayer in order to evaluate the spatial distribution of etofenprox drift in a vineyard-hedgerow system and its effect on the predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans. Three scenarios of decreasing potential drift were compared, all in still wind conditions. In the worst case of free expansion of drift, 12% of the applied rate drifted for 6–7 m with minor effect on K. aberrans abundance, according to the dose–response assay results; the presence of a hedgerow reduced the drift by about 80%. The hedgerow was also effective when good agronomic practices were followed, and the effect of drift on K. aberrans was not significant, its abundance being mainly linked to the patchiness of the natural population. Because of lateral drift, i.e. not in the direction of air-flow from sprayer, spray was detected at very low concentration in the contiguous untreated vineyard. This had no effect on K. aberrans but had the capacity to contaminate organic crops and provide a risk to surface water and bystanders. This suggests that an environmental regulatory scheme taking hedgerows into account should be supported and implemented on a catchment or regional scale.

Spatio-temporal dynamics of Orius spp. (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) abundance
in the agricultural landscape

This is a citation of your published work. Make sure you list the precise publishing medium of your work, whethePredators of the genus Orius are widely released as control agents against Frankliniella occidentalis, however they can also colonize crops spontaneously, and conservation biological control can potentially take advantage of the presence of semi-natural areas in the agricultural landscape. A three-year study was conducted in Hungary in order to evaluate the Orius species spatial pattern at landscape scale, and to link their eventual aggregation, i.e. higher abundance, to the presence of semi-natural areas, which has been shown to benefit conservation biological control in general. Results show that Orius species population size and spatial pattern are related to semi-natural areas, and that influences with other agro-environmental factors exist. Orius niger abundance is likely to be associated with semi-natural areas, where it can successfully overwinter, but also with other resources in the landscape, especially in warm years. As a consequence of O. niger being a habitat generalist we suggest that at landscape scale its abundance pattern is driven by resource patterns and availability of both semi-natural and cultivated areas. Furthermore, their population dynamics is influenced by crop management intensity rather than crop composition of cropping systems.r it be a book, an essay, an article, or a research manuscript. If your work appears only on certain pages, include those details and the date of publication to make it easier for your readers to identify and find your piece.

February 15, 2013

Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment

Volume 166, 15 February 2013, Pages 110-117

Does landscape composition affect pest abundance and their control by natural
enemies? A review

Landscape management could contribute to sustainable pest control. Landscape composition, in particular, could either directly impact a pest abundance by affecting its dispersal, mortality or reproduction, or indirectly by affecting its natural enemies. We performed an analysis of the scientific literature to assess how the proportion of different land covers at the landscape level is related to the abundance of pests or to their control by natural enemies. Of 72 independent case studies, 45 reported an effect of landscape composition. Results confirmed the suspected suppressive effect of landscape scale amounts of semi-natural areas on in-field pests: landscapes with higher proportions of semi-natural areas exhibited lower pest abundance or higher pest control in fields. Contrarily, there was no clear direction in relationships between pests and pest control and landscape when the latter was described as the overall proportion of cultivated area or as that of crops host to particular pests. The analysis of original articles indicates that this lack of direction may be due to the diversity of land use intensity in the studied landscapes and to a too rough categorizing of land covers. This pleads for a better consideration of the functionality of crops and of their management in landscapes.